What is Otitis Media (OM)?
Otitis media is inflammation located in the middle ear. Otitis media can occur as a result of a cold, sore throat or respiratory infection.
Facts about Otitis Media:
- More than 80 percent of children have at least one episode of otitis media by the time they are three years of age.
- Nearly half of these children have three or more episodes by the time they are 3.
- Otitis media can also affect adults, although it is primarily a condition that occurs in children.
- Otitis media is the second most common diagnosis for children in the U.S.
- Otitis media occurs more often in the winter and early spring.
Who is at Risk for getting Ear Infections?
While any child may develop an ear infection, the following are some of the factors that may increase your child's risk of developing ear infections:
- Family history of ear infections
- A poor immune system
- Spends time in a daycare setting
- Absence of breastfeeding
- Having a cold
- Bottle fed while laying on his/her back
What Causes Otitis Media?
Middle ear infections are usually a result of a malfunction of the eustachian tube, a canal that links the middle ear with the back of the nose. The eustachian tube helps to equalize the pressure between the outer ear and the middle ear. When this tube is not working properly, it prevents normal drainage of fluid from the middle ear, causing a buildup of fluid behind the eardrum or a change in the environment that allows bacteria to grow and cause an infection. The following are some of the reasons that the eustachian tube may not work properly:
- An immature eustachian tube that does not properly drain and ventilate the middle ear
- A cold or allergy which can lead to swelling and congestion of the lining of the nose, throat and eustachian tube (this swelling prevents the normal flow of fluids)
- A malformation of the eustachian tube or supporting structures
What are the Different Types of Otitis Media?
Different types of otitis media include the following:
- Acute otitis media (AOM) - the middle ear infection occurs abruptly causing swelling and redness. Fluid and mucus become trapped inside the ear, causing the child to have a fever and ear pain. The hearing may be affecting as well.
- Otitis media with effusion (OME) - fluid (effusion) and mucus continue to accumulate in the middle ear. This may be preceded by an ear infection or occur without apparent symptoms other than hearing loss. The child may experience a feeling of fullness in the ear and hearing loss.
What are the Symptoms of Otitis Media?
The following are the most common symptoms of otitis media. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
- Unusual irritability
- Difficulty sleeping or staying asleep
- Tugging or pulling at one or both ears
- Fluid draining from ear(s)
- Loss of balance
- Hearing difficulties
- Ear pain
- Nausea and vomiting
- Decreased appetite
The symptoms of otitis media may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your child's physician for a diagnosis.
How is Otitis Media Diagnosed?
In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, your child's physician will inspect the outer ear(s) and eardrum(s) using an otoscope. The otoscope is a lighted instrument that allows the physician to see the ear canal and eardrum. A pneumatic otoscope blows a puff of air into the ear to test eardrum movement.
Tympanometry is a test that can be performed in most physicians' offices to help determine how the middle ear is functioning. It does not tell if the child is hearing or not, but helps to detect any changes in pressure in the middle ear. This is a difficult test to perform in younger children because the child needs to remain still and not cry, talk or move.
A hearing test may be performed for children who have frequent ear infections.
Treatment for Otitis Media:
Specific treatment for otitis media will be determined by your child's physician based on the following:
- Your child's age, overall health, and medical history
- Extent of the condition
- Your child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
- Expectations for the course of the condition
- Your opinion or preference
Treatment may include:
- Antibiotic medication by mouth or ear drops
- Medication (for pain)
If fluid remains in the ear(s) for longer than three months, your child's physician may suggest that small tubes be placed in the ear(s). This surgical procedure, called myringotomy with tympanostomy tube placement, involves making a small opening in the eardrum to drain the fluid and relieve the pressure from the middle ear. A small tube is placed in the opening of the eardrum to ventilate the middle ear and to prevent fluid from accumulating. The child's hearing is usually restored after the fluid is drained. The tubes usually fall out on their own after six to twelve months.
Your child's surgeon may also recommend the removal of the adenoids (lymph tissue located in the space above the soft roof of the mouth, also called nasopharynx) if they are infected or enlarged. Removal of the adenoids has shown to help some children with otitis media.
Treatment will depend upon the type of otitis media. Consult your child's physician regarding treatment options.
What are the Effects of Otitis Media?
In addition to the symptoms of otitis media listed above, untreated otitis media can result in any/all of the following:
- Infection in other parts of the head (mastoiditis, infection around the brain)
- Permanent hearing loss
- Problems with speech and language development
- Cholesteatoma development